Structural element Amino acid and its components
A carbon atom is the alpha, or central, component linked to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable component, also called a side chain. All amino acids have the same basic structure shown in the figure.
At the "centre" of each amino acid is a carbon called the α carbon, with four groups attached to it:
2. α-carboxyl group;
3. α-amine group;
4. The R-group, sometimes called the side chain.
By capital – α carbon, carboxyl groups and amino groups are common to all amino acids, so the R-group is the only unique feature in each amino acid and it makes the Amino Acid unique. The R group determines the properties (size, polarity and pH) of each type of amino acid. A minor exception to this structure is the proline structure, in which the R-group is terminally attached to an α-amine. Peptide bonds are formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid through dehydration synthesis. A chain of amino acids is a polypeptide. Proteins have 22 amino acids, and only 20 of them are specified by the universal genetic code. The others, Selenocysteine and Pyrrolysine, use tRNAs that can bind to mRNA stop codons during translation (a function that "stops" the protein production process, so to speak). When this happens, these unusual amino acids can be incorporated into proteins.
Following are the 22 amino acids, with their chemical/atomic/molecular structure. The essential amino acid is marked with: NA
1. Alanine C3H7NO2;
2. Cysteine C3H7NO2S;
3. Aspartic acid C4H7NO4;
4. Glutamic acid C5H9NO4;
5. Phenylalanine NA C9H11NO2;
6. Glycine C2H5NO2;
7. Histidine NA C6H9N3O2;
8. Isoleucine NA C6H13NO2;
9. Lysine NA C6H14N2O2;
10. Leucine NA C6H13NO2;
11. Methionine NA C5H11NO2S;
12. Asparagine C4H8N2O3;
13. Pyrrolysine C12H21N3O3;
14. Proline C5H9NO2;
15. Glutamine C5H10N2O3;
16. Arginine C6H14N4O2;
17. Serine C3H7NO3;
18. Threonine NA C4H9NO3;
19. Selenocysteine C3H7NO2Se;
20. Valine NA C5H11NO2;
21. Tryptophan NA C11H12N2O2;
22. Tyrosine C9H11NO3.
To find the number of quarks, let's do some math. The method is the same as in the atom section.
Conclusions: The Observable Phenomenon – Amino Acid, depends only on the existence of the various Structural Elements and depends on the characteristics of the constituents forming the Structural Elements and their existence. The existence of the observable Phenomenon and Structural Elements of the Phenomenon is directly consequent/dependent on their components. Changing the components of the Structural Elements creates another phenomenon. That is, by changing a narrowly specific number/type of Atoms, the observed Phenomenon – Amino Acid – changes.
Amino acids have Functions. More correctly, it participates in providing certain functions and here it is important to understand that…
Now we must be reminded – Truth/Phenomenon is one. The phenomenon is one, but complicated because even though the phenomenon is one, it consists of the structural elements of the Phenomenon, which in turn consist of components, which themselves, although they are components of the Structural Elements, each of them is a Structural Element with its own characteristic components, which are mutually connected, at the closest/furthest point in time and space and in joint interaction, at different levels, according to their characteristics form a joint interaction, which together also forms the Phenomenon. The structural elements (components) of the universe system are interconnected and their existence results as a product of the interaction of other systems and their structural elements (components). Each system and its structural elements (components) has its own world of characteristics, which differ from the characteristic characteristics of the world of the structural elements (components) that make up it, but they all ensure the energy transfer-transformation process. Each amino acid provides a specific function. Below is a list of functions of just one Amino Acid and their functions. The functionality of amino acids is a very researched field, a broad topic, so to save time, only one amino acid is described in more detail to demonstrate that:
A) everything is interconnected,
B) that the connection is not only direct, but it can be and is in the depth of the Components.
Under these amino acids and their functions, there will be an example of how different sets of structural elements with the mechanisms of their components form one or another Phenomenon of health manifestations – Disease.
1. Alanine – Alanine is the second most abundant amino acid in protein, after leucine. Alanine is one of the twenty canonical α-amino acids used as building blocks (monomers) for ribosome-mediated protein biosynthesis. Alanine is believed to be one of the earliest amino acids included in the standard repertoire of the genetic code. Based on this fact, the "Alanine World" hypothesis was put forward. This hypothesis explains the evolutionary selection of amino acids in the repertoire of the genetic code from a chemical point of view. In this model, the choice of monomers (i.e., amino acids) for ribosomal protein synthesis is rather limited to those alanine derivatives suitable for the formation of α-helix or β-sheet secondary structural elements. The dominant secondary structures in life as we know it are α-helices and β-sheets, and most canonical amino acids can be thought of as chemical derivatives of alanine. Therefore, most canonical amino acids in proteins can be exchanged for Ala by point mutations while the secondary structure remains intact. The fact that Ala mimics the secondary structure preferences of most encoded amino acids is of practical use in alanine scanning mutagenesis. In addition, classical X-ray crystallography often uses the model of the polyalanine backbone to determine the three-dimensional structures of proteins using molecular replacement, a model-based phasing method. Alanine is easily converted to glucose and back in the liver (the so-called glucose-alanine cycle). Therefore, alanine belongs to replaceable amino acids, which the body synthesizes itself. When the body lacks carbohydrates, it builds them from alanine in muscle protein to provide blood glucose;
The functions of amino acids will be expressed not at the Amino Acid/molecule level itself, but at the functional level of the Human Organism.
It is a:
- 2 out of 6 quarks make up a Proton and or a Neutron. By combining Protons/Neutrons, in various combinations, various Atoms are formed. Atoms combine to form molecules. In this large range of molecules, certain structural molecules are separated as Amino Acids, which make up Proteins. Proteins make up the cell. Cells are many and varied. Each has its own functionality. A cell consists of organelles. When certain types of organelles unite, an Organ is formed. Organ Systems are formed when different Organs join together. Different organ systems support the life processes of the Human body.
And here is an interesting detail – the amino acid participates in providing certain functions, somewhere in the Organ. Not at the Amino Acid or organelles level, but at the Organ and or Organ system.
Chains containing more than 50 amino acid units are called proteins or polypeptides.