# In Development

## Unnoticed & Unused Consequences of Law of Conservation of Energy

The law of conservation of energy states that Energy transforms from one form to another, but its total amount does not change.
In order for this law to work:
A) The structural elements (components) of the universe, from the smallest to the largest, participate in the process of taking in, storing, transforming and transferring their energy, in energy exchange processes.
This in turn means that:
B) The structural elements (components) of the universe must be designed in such a way that they require:
•    Take Energy;
•    Transform Energy from one type to another;
•    Store and/or Transfer – transformed or untransformed – Energy to another interacting structural element.
This in turn means that: and this is very, very, very important, archivally important:
C) The structural elements (components) of the universe system are interconnected and their existence results as a product of the interaction of inner systems and their structural elements (components). Each system and its structural elements (components) has its own world of characteristics, which differ from the characteristic characteristics of the world of the structural elements (components) that make up it, but they all ensure the energy transfer-transformation process.

D) Any process in the universe exists solely because it is a part of the process of the Law of Constancy of Energy, which conducts its own unique Energy.

Every particle of the universe and their clusters

# TAKES AND TRANSMITS ENERGY AT THE SAME TIME

Each particle, regardless of its structure and size, should have 2 structural mechanisms, for 2 things:
• Absorb energy;
• Transfer energy.
Transformation as such does not happen because…
…depends on the structural structure of the particle – the process of energy exchange in a chain of several particles:

• if they are mutually identical and independent;

or

• their structural element/component is a component of another energy exchange particle chain.

Therefore, the energy formula is E = mcÂ²

# TAKES AND TRANSMITS ENERGY AT THE SAME TIME

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## Human is part of the Universe

MAN IS A COMPONENT OF THE ENERGY TRANSFORMATION PROCESS OF THE UNIVERSE

# IF THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY IS CORRECT

All processes in the universe must be viewed and described as a process of Energy Transformation when Energy transforms from one form to another.

As the process of Energy transformation began, shortly after the hypothetical Big Bang, Quarks began to form. There are 6 quarks. The energy of that moment was in these 6 quarks. Only two out of six quarks form composite particles – hadrons, the most stable of which are Protons & Neutrons, or the “bricks” of the observable Universe, and the Energy corresponding to them transforms into them. The smallest part. Everything on Earth, everything ever observed by all our instruments, all ordinary matterâ€”totals less than 5% of the universe.

According to today’s dominant theoretical model, 13.8 billion years ago, all the Energy of the Universe was at one point. The “Great Expansion”, inflationary processes took place. Inflation stopped at about the 10âˆ’33 to 10âˆ’32 second mark, and the volume of the universe increased by at least 1078 until the universe reached the temperature necessary to form a quark-gluon plasma.

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6 Quarks, antiquarks and the elements providing their binding force were formed. In these 6 quarks, there was the Energy of time (plus/minus, depending on what other particles there were and interpretations). The Protons/Neutrons that make up the atom are made up of two out of six quarks. A proton consists of two upper (U) and one lower (D) quark.

A neutron consists of two bottom (U) and one top (D) quark.

An Atom is formed when a Proton and a Neutron combine. Depending on the number of protons and neutrons in an atom, another atom is formed. There are many different types of atoms, each with its own name, mass, and size. These different types of atoms are called chemical elements. Chemical Elements are grouped in Mendeleev’s table. Below is a small enumeration from Mendeleev’s table without looking at the different isotopes. The key is interconnections and similarities:

 Atom/ Chem.Elem Protons Neutrons Electrons U quarks D quarks 1. HydrogenH 1 0 1 2 1 2. Helium. He 2 2 2 6 6 3. Lithium. Li 3 3 3 9 9 4. Beryllium. Be 4 5 4 13 14 5. Boron. B 5 6 5 16 17 6. Carbon.C. 6 6 6 18 18 7. Nitrogen.N 7 7 7 21 21 8. Oxygen.O 8 8 8 24 24 9. Flour.F 9 10 9 28 29

And so on and so on. As the number of Protons(U&Dquarks)/Neutrons(U&Dquarks) in the nucleus changes, the type of Atom changes. This relationship continues to the last Atoms/Chemical Elements in the table. Let’s look at the last line:

 Atom/ Chem.Elem. Protons Neutrons Electrons U quarks D quarks 117.TenesÄ«ns.Ts. 117 177 117 411 471 118.Oganesons.Og 118 176 118 412 470

As each Atom consists of a Proton/Neutron, at the same time, it contains a proportional number of Up and Down Quarks.

“How deep do you have to go to understand” we defined: Regardless of the Phenomenon – the Phenomenon is one, but it consists of Structural Elements and their various components, the depth of the Structural Elements system, which at different levels and configurations of the Structural Elements’ depths, together in a common interaction, also form the observed Phenomenon. The existence of the observable Phenomenon and Structural Elements of the Phenomenon is directly consequent/dependent on their components. By replacing the components of the StructureElement, another Phenomenon is formed. That is, changing the number of protons/neutrons changes the observed Phenomenon – Atom. Atoms combine to form molecules.

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Important note

# Quarks are not "reborn" in an Atom by disappearing, but by combining to form a larger Structure! 18+ billion year old Quarks are in the Atom.

Structural element Molecule, the diversity formed by their variable components

Molecules are formed when atoms combine with each other. For example:

•    H2O – water. 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atoms;

•    H2SO4 – sulfuric acid. 2 hydrogens, 1 sulfur and 4 oxygen atoms;

•    N2 – Pain molecule, consists of two nitrogen atoms.

Therefore, the H2O molecule consists of a combination of two Hydrogen Atoms and one Oxygen Atom, which together give:

•    Hydrogen. For two protons and 2 electrons, where 2 protons consist of 4 U quarks + 2 D quarks;

•    Oxygen's 8 Protons, 8 Neutrons and 8 Electrons consist of 24 U quarks and 24 D quarks.

And so on, every Atom has Quarks. How many molecules are there in the universe? In short – unlimited. Medicine, as a science, needs to know and be familiar with the diversity of molecules and their functionality in order to treat them. There is a special, so to speak, database of medical molecules, which contains molecules not from all atoms, but only from some. GDB17 counts 166.4 billion molecules of up to 17 atoms – C, N, O, S and halogen atoms – following simple rules of chemical stability and synthetic feasibility.

Conclusion: The Observable Phenomenon – the Molecule, depends only on the existence of the various Structural Elements depends on the characteristics of the components that make up the Structural Elements and their existence. The existence of the observable Phenomenon and Structural Elements of the Phenomenon is directly consequent/dependent on their components. Changing the components of the Structural Elements creates another phenomenon. That is, by changing the type and number of Atoms, the observed Phenomenon – Molecule changes.

Important note

# Atoms are not "reborn" in a molecule by disappearing, but by combining they created a larger Structure! 18+ billion year old Quarks & Atoms are in the Molecule.

Structural element Amino acid and its components

A carbon atom is the alpha, or central, component linked to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable component, also called a side chain. All amino acids have the same basic structure shown in the figure.

At the "centre" of each amino acid is a carbon called the α carbon, with four groups attached to it:

1. Hydrogen;

2. α-carboxyl group;

3. α-amine group;

4.    The R-group, sometimes called the side chain.

By capital – α carbon, carboxyl groups and amino groups are common to all amino acids, so the R-group is the only unique feature in each amino acid and it makes the Amino Acid unique. The R group determines the properties (size, polarity and pH) of each type of amino acid. A minor exception to this structure is the proline structure, in which the R-group is terminally attached to an α-amine. Peptide bonds are formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid through dehydration synthesis. A chain of amino acids is a polypeptide. Proteins have 22 amino acids, and only 20 of them are specified by the universal genetic code. The others, Selenocysteine and Pyrrolysine, use tRNAs that can bind to mRNA stop codons during translation (a function that "stops" the protein production process, so to speak). When this happens, these unusual amino acids can be incorporated into proteins.

Following are the 22 amino acids, with their chemical/atomic/molecular structure. The essential amino acid is marked with: NA

1.    Alanine                                                                                  C3H7NO2;

2.    Cysteine                                                                                 C3H7NO2S;

3.    Aspartic acid                                                                         C4H7NO4;

4.    Glutamic acid                                                                      C5H9NO4;

5.    Phenylalanine                                             NA                     C9H11NO2;

6.    Glycine                                                                                      C2H5NO2;

7.    Histidine                                                      NA                     C6H9N3O2;

8.    Isoleucine                                                    NA                     C6H13NO2;

9.    Lysine                                                           NA                     C6H14N2O2;

10.    Leucine                                                       NA                    C6H13NO2;

11.    Methionine                                                 NA                     C5H11NO2S;

12.    Asparagine                                                                              C4H8N2O3;

13.    Pyrrolysine                                                                              C12H21N3O3;

14.    Proline                                                                                       C5H9NO2;

15.    Glutamine                                                                                 C5H10N2O3;

16.    Arginine                                                                                     C6H14N4O2;

17.    Serine                                                                                          C3H7NO3;

18.    Threonine                                                     NA                      C4H9NO3;

19.    Selenocysteine                                                                         C3H7NO2Se;

20.    Valine                                                            NA                      C5H11NO2;

21.    Tryptophan                                                  NA                      C11H12N2O2;

22.    Tyrosine                                                                                    C9H11NO3.

To find the number of quarks, let's do some math. The method is the same as in the atom section.

Conclusions: The Observable Phenomenon – Amino Acid, depends only on the existence of the various Structural Elements and depends on the characteristics of the constituents forming the Structural Elements and their existence. The existence of the observable Phenomenon and Structural Elements of the Phenomenon is directly consequent/dependent on their components. Changing the components of the Structural Elements creates another phenomenon. That is, by changing a narrowly specific number/type of Atoms, the observed Phenomenon – Amino Acid – changes.

Amino acids have Functions. More correctly, it participates in providing certain functions and here it is important to understand that…

Now we must be reminded – Truth/Phenomenon is one. The phenomenon is one, but complicated because even though the phenomenon is one, it consists of the structural elements of the Phenomenon, which in turn consist of components, which themselves, although they are components of the Structural Elements, each of them is a Structural Element with its own characteristic components, which are mutually connected, at the closest/furthest point in time and space and in joint interaction, at different levels, according to their characteristics form a joint interaction, which together also forms the Phenomenon. The structural elements (components) of the universe system are interconnected and their existence results as a product of the interaction of other systems and their structural elements (components). Each system and its structural elements (components) has its own world of characteristics, which differ from the characteristic characteristics of the world of the structural elements (components) that make up it, but they all ensure the energy transfer-transformation process. Each amino acid provides a specific function. Below is a list of functions of just one Amino Acid and their functions. The functionality of amino acids is a very researched field, a broad topic, so to save time, only one amino acid is described in more detail to demonstrate that:

A) everything is interconnected,

B) that the connection is not only direct, but it can be and is in the depth of the Components.

Under these amino acids and their functions, there will be an example of how different sets of structural elements with the mechanisms of their components form one or another Phenomenon of health manifestations – Disease.

1.    Alanine – Alanine is the second most abundant amino acid in protein, after leucine. Alanine is one of the twenty canonical α-amino acids used as building blocks (monomers) for ribosome-mediated protein biosynthesis. Alanine is believed to be one of the earliest amino acids included in the standard repertoire of the genetic code. Based on this fact, the "Alanine World" hypothesis was put forward. This hypothesis explains the evolutionary selection of amino acids in the repertoire of the genetic code from a chemical point of view. In this model, the choice of monomers (i.e., amino acids) for ribosomal protein synthesis is rather limited to those alanine derivatives suitable for the formation of α-helix or β-sheet secondary structural elements. The dominant secondary structures in life as we know it are α-helices and β-sheets, and most canonical amino acids can be thought of as chemical derivatives of alanine. Therefore, most canonical amino acids in proteins can be exchanged for Ala by point mutations while the secondary structure remains intact. The fact that Ala mimics the secondary structure preferences of most encoded amino acids is of practical use in alanine scanning mutagenesis. In addition, classical X-ray crystallography often uses the model of the polyalanine backbone to determine the three-dimensional structures of proteins using molecular replacement, a model-based phasing method. Alanine is easily converted to glucose and back in the liver (the so-called glucose-alanine cycle). Therefore, alanine belongs to replaceable amino acids, which the body synthesizes itself. When the body lacks carbohydrates, it builds them from alanine in muscle protein to provide blood glucose;

The functions of amino acids will be expressed not at the Amino Acid/molecule level itself, but at the functional level of the Human Organism.

It is a:

• 2 out of 6 quarks make up a Proton and or a Neutron. By combining Protons/Neutrons, in various combinations, various Atoms are formed. Atoms combine to form molecules. In this large range of molecules, certain structural molecules are separated as Amino Acids, which make up Proteins. Proteins make up the cell. Cells are many and varied. Each has its own functionality. A cell consists of organelles. When certain types of organelles unite, an Organ is formed. Organ Systems are formed when different Organs join together. Different organ systems support the life processes of the Human body.

And here is an interesting detail – the amino acid participates in providing certain functions, somewhere in the Organ. Not at the Amino Acid or organelles level, but at the Organ and or Organ system.

Chains containing more than 50 amino acid units are called proteins or polypeptides.

Important note

# Molecules are not "reborn" in an amino acid by disappearing, but by combining to form a larger Structure! 18+ billion year old Quarks, Atoms & Molecules are Amino Acid.

Structural element Protein and their diversity

Proteins are the building blocks of the human body. Except for water, minerals and fat, the human body is almost entirely made up of protein. Protein is the main component of muscles, bones, organs, skin and nails. Excluding water, muscle is made up of about 80% protein. In the diet, nothing can replace the nine so-called essential amino acids. They must be supplied to the body continuously throughout its life. Proteins that contain these amino acids are called complete proteins. Replaceable amino acids are also important in life processes, but they can be synthesized in the body from other substances if the necessary raw materials are available and their synthesis mechanisms work perfectly. The proteome is the entire set of proteins that are expressed or can be expressed by a genome, cell, tissue or organism at a given time. It is a set of proteins expressed in a certain cell or organism, at a certain time and under certain conditions. How is the protein that Man eats used?

The body breaks down proteins into amino acids and absorbs them. In amino acids. Amino acids are used to build muscles and organs, produce hormones and antibodies, store as fat and burn as energy. Everything is interconnected, the question is how much everyone knows, is able to combine knowledge into a single chain that gives a single understanding. Not episodic, in-depth in one field, but Unified – a combination of different fields.

Important note

# Amino acids are not "reborn" in the protein, disappearing, but combining to form a larger Structure! 18+ billion years old Quarks, Atoms, Molecules, Amino Acids is Protein.

SUMMARY - HUMAN IS PART OF THE UNIVERSE AND THEY HAVE A COMMON STRUCTURE

# There are 6 quarks, 2 of which, in various combinations, form:

Visible Universe:

1. Protons & Neutrons;
2. Protons & Neutrons, in various configurations, make up Atoms;
3. Atoms in different configurations make up molecules;
4. Atoms & Molecules make up the components of the universe - meteorites, planets, stars, remnants of the life cycle of stars;
5. Stars form Galaxies;
6. Galaxies make up the universe.

People:

1. Protons & Neutrons;
2. Protons & Neutrons, in various configurations make up Atoms;
3. Atoms in different configurations make up molecules;

Some of the molecules of the C atom, which meet certain characteristics, are the structural element that forms the human being – Amino acids;

• Amino acids form Proteins;
• Proteins make up the cell. There are currently 200+ different cell types known;
• When certain types of cells combine, Organelles are formed;
• An Organ is formed by the union of different organelles in different systems;
• When different Organs join together, Organ Systems are formed;
• Organ systems make up the human body.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE IS MORE SIMILAR

# To the MÐ°Ñ‚Ñ€ÐµÑˆÐºÐ° principle, when the smallest elementary particles combine and form new structures and are their components

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